Glossary


A

Assimilation – the process by which people lose their cultural differences and blend into a larger society

B

Bias – interpretation and judgment of other people and their way of life in terms particular to our culture

Business interpreting– interpreting during business meetings, networking functions, and other gatherings of a similar nature

C

CAT (Computer Aided Translation) tool- software used by translators to save time and encourage consistency during the translation of a document

Certified interpreters- professional interpreters that have completed a course or program for interpreting

Communication styles – differences in how we express ourselves

Communication – the process by which we exchange ideas, feelings, and symbols of all kinds in a way that can be understood by others

Community interpreting– interpreting for community members for every day appointments and activities, sometimes on a volunteer basis

Conference interpretation – interpreting simultaneously while at a large meeting or convention, usually using headphones, microphone, and recording equipment in a glass booth

Conflict management – the ability to deal with conflict in an effective and constructive manner

Consecutive interpretation- interpreting after the speaker has finished saying a few sentences

Court/Legal interpreting- interpreting at a court hearing or legal meeting with special knowledge of the field and circumstances

Cross-cultural conflict – conflict among people from various cultural backgrounds

Cultural awareness – the state of recognizing different cultures

Cultural diversity – is based on the idea that cultural identities should not be discarded or ignored, but rather maintained and valued

Cultural identity – the people and ways of life with which we identify

Cultural Intelligence (CQ) – the ability to understand, appreciate, and utilize the culture of another group of people in order to facilitate effective communication

Cultural misunderstandings – to have misguided views of another culture based on your own perceptions of what is polite

Cultural values – the ideas about what is good, right, fair, and just in a specific culture

Culture – the way of life of a people that is learned socially

Culture shock – the disorientation felt when encountering a significantly different way of life

CQ assessment – the measurement of your proficiency in four major areas: Drive, Knowledge, Strategy, and Action

D

Discrimination – the unequal treatment of a group or individual

Diversity – the condition of having or being composed of different types of people (as people of different races or cultures) in a group or organization

E

Editing – the comparison of a translation to its source text for accuracy and cultural context

Educational interpreting – interpreting in the educational system at any level for classrooms, private tutors, large presentations, and more

Emotional intelligence (EQ) – the ability to recognize, translate, and appropriately respond to feelings in others and ourselves

Empathy – identification with the feelings, thoughts, or attitudes of another

Enculturation – process where individuals learn about a culture through experience, observation and training

Escort interpreting – interpreting while accompanying travelers in foreign lands, both in professional and formal settings

Expatriate (expat) – a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than his own

F

G

Glass ceiling – barriers that keep certain people out of the highest positions

Globalization – the growing interdependence among people and cultures throughout the world

Glossary – project terms with their translations, uses, definitions, and translator or client notes

H

Host country – a nation in which individuals or organizations from other countries are visiting or working due to an assignment or meeting

I

Identity – the set of behavioral or personal characteristics that designate an individual as a member of a group

Interpretation – conversion of spoken word into another language, sometimes a specific dialect

I (cont.)

Intercultural communication – the process by which people from different cultures relate and communicate with each other by exchanging ideas, feelings and meanings

Internationalization – refers to the setting up of offshore facilities to market and distribute products and services

J

K

L

Language – how someone communicates

Language barriers – the difficulties faced when people who have no language in common attempt to communicate

Linguistic diversity – the various languages of a country

Literary translation – translation of literature, such as a novel or other work of fiction

Localization – ensuring that a translation is culturally appropriate

M

Medical interpreting – interpreting in the medical field, such as a doctor’s appointment, surgery consultation, or emergency situation, with special knowledge of the field and circumstance

Migration – the movement of people from one country to another

Multicultural societies – societies that have many cultures

Multilingual skills – ability to think and speak in a number of languages

N

Native language – an individual’s first language or “mother tongue”

Non-verbal communication – the process by which people communicate without using words

O

On-site interpretation – interpretation occurring with all parties at the same physical location

Organizational culture – the structures, values, rules, behaviors, and assumptions that characterize an organization

P

Patriotism – the love and devotion for a person’s country

Personal space – the area surrounding a person which he or she makes as private

Prejudice – an unjustified or incorrect attitude towards an individual based solely on the individual’s membership of a social group

Professional interpreters – interpreters with experience in a specific field that are paid for their work

Proofreading – review of a translated text for spelling and grammatical errors

Q

R

Racism – the belief that another person is less than human because of skin color, language, customs, place of birth or any factor that supposedly reveals the basic nature of that person

S

Sight interpretation – when an interpreter reads text in one language and orally interprets it in another language

Simultaneous interpretation – interpreting while the speaker speaks

Social norms – beliefs held by a group about how people should behave

Social service interpreting – interpreting for government programs and their clients during home visits, meetings, and other appointments

Source language – the language in which text is originally written

Stereotypes – generalizations or assumptions people make about a group of people based on their image

Subcultures – specific ways of life within the mainstream culture

T

Target language – the language text is translated into

Team building – the process of allowing a group of people to reach a common goal

Telephonic interpretation – interpretation occurring when one party uses a telephone to participate

Transcreation – the recreation of a message to be properly communicated in another language and or culture

Translation – converting written text into another language, sometimes a specific dialect

U

V

Video Remote Interpreting (VRI) – interpretation when one party uses video technology to participate

Virtual teams – members of a group who use technology to communicate and interact across distance, time, and organizational boundaries in pursuit of a common goal

W

Workplace norms – rooted in cultural background; the thought processes, group tendencies, and creature comforts of a group of people

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